Vacuum and Its Formation Vacuum is called to a space which is free of matter. In such a condition, air molecules which cause pressure are also available. This is an ideal definition of vacuum. Absolute zero pressure is defined in this space. In practice, achievement of such an environment is impossible because there are always some gas molecules; however, achievement of very low pressures is possible. Today, vacuum systems are manufactured that can generate environments capable of very low molecular separation per unit volume. Pressures lower than the pressure of air atmosphere are called vacuum. The word Vacuum is derived [...]
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For making changes in the attitude (or position) of the satellites, considering the level of change and its kind, different actuators can be used. This actuators, by the use of Action and Reaction Principle (Newton's second principle), can import force to the satellite without relying on any surface. One of the most important of such actuators are thrusters in which after the exit of gas from a nozzle, necessary momentum for rotation (or movement) of satellite is provided. Due to the country's need and in order to achieve to the designing and manufacturing technology of such actuators, Space Research Laboratory [...]
Earth stations are mainly designed in order to connect to the satellites, receive payload information and send control commands. Along with the advancements of space department technologies, and through developing satellite earth systems which are applicable by spending acceptable money and energy, educational and research programs of space fields at universities and research centers can be developed and boosted. So by having experiences gained through connection with active satellites of space and also by training efficient personnel, when launching satellites, risk and expenses would decrease to a great extent and it would also result in space projects efficiency.Thus space research [...]
In order to test the identification of magnetic two poles of the production magnet torquers and also their interaction with magnetic field there was a need for satellite orbit, so that by the use of two dimensional Helmholtz rings, the magnetic field of the orbit could be simulated in a coordinate system attached to the orbit's page in two dimensions For this aim, the simulator system of satellite orbit magnetic environment called "KOSAR 100" was built in Space Research Laboratory and it could simulate magnetic field in a wider confine more carefully. This simulator is used to simulate a magnetic [...]
For making changes in the attitude (or position) of the satellites, considering the level of change and its kind, different actuators can be used. This actuators, by the use of Action and Reaction Principle (Newton’s second principle), can import force to the satellite without relying on any surface. One of the most important of such actuators is reaction wheels in which the reaction force made because of rotation's start, rotation's speed change, or rotation's stop can be used as propulsion of attitude's change. Due to the country's need and in order to achieve to the designing and manufacturing technology of [...]
Virtual simulator is a device which helps to analyzeand assess space systems functions and their control algorithms without any difficulty or hardware problems. Considering this issue and also country�s need to have access to such products, virtual simulator of space systems is designed and operated at space research Laboratory. This simulator, by the use of basic attitude models and also satellite transmission models has the capability to simulate transmission link of geosynchronous satellite and also the dynamic of satellite's attitude in a virtual way. All the stages of designing and producing of this simulator is done completely in space research [...]
In order to simulate the functional environment of a space system and to assess the function of control/stability subsystem, SpaceRL has begun designing and making the Hardware In the Loop (HIL) for attitude simulator. This system is a stand with three degrees of freedom which can simulate the attitude of a space system and its elements like the way it actually happens in orbit. This simulator can be used to test the attitude actuators such as reaction wheels and thrusters. Appropriate properties of this simulator have made possible the sending of control commands and the receiving of its reaction in [...]
In space systems design process, the use of system analysis is inevitable. System engineering makes it possible for the designers to carefully consider all dimensions of the problem. In system engineering process, the relationship between workgroups, subjects and different subsystems is appropriately made possible through software. Due to the design and manufacturing of different space systems in the country, the need to perform systematic analysis is felt more than before. Thus space research Laboratory has begun to design and produce design and system analysis software in the form of different subjects. Such software are: the software for conceptual designing of [...]